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 Linux Basic Networking

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conrad

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Number of posts : 108
Age : 41
Location : Philippines
Registration date : 2008-09-27

PostSubject: Linux Basic Networking   Sun Sep 28, 2008 2:06 pm

Linux Networking Setup


Required Information


To enable networking, you must configure your network interface card or
cards with an IP address and netmask. The kernel must have support for
your cards compiled in, either as modular support or direct support. If
you don't have kernel support read the sections about the kernel and
how to compile it. To set your cards up, do the following. In my
example my network is 192.168.1.0, IP=192.168.1.100,
broadcast=192.168.1.255, netmask=255.255.255.0, gateway-192.168.1.1,
nameserver=192.168.1.10.


  1. Determine your machines IP address from your network administrator
  2. Your network mask. This determines which portion of the IP
    address specifies the subnetwork number and which portion specifies the
    host.


    Class C (most networks) 255.255.255.0
    Class B 255.255.0.0
  3. Your network address which is your IP address bit wise anded with the network mask.

    Ex: IP: 192.168.1.100
    Mask: 255.255.255.0
    Net Addr:: 192.168.1.0
  4. Your broadcast address. Used to broadcast packets to every machine on your subnet.

    Ex: IP: 192.168.1.100
    Mask: 255.255.255.0
    Net Addr: 192.168.1.255
  5. Your gateway address. The address of the machine that is your gateway to the outside world.
    In many cases: Ex: IP: 192.168.1.100 Gateway: 192.168.1.1
  6. Your nameserver address. Translates host names into IP addresses. 192.168.1.10



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Configuration tools


There are many network configuration tools today. They are:

netconf
A GUI interactive interface available on Redhat 6.1
linuxconf
A GUI interactive interface available on Redhat 6.1 which includes netconf configuration.
netconfig
A GUI step by step interface
ifconfig
A text based program to configure the network interface. Type "man ifconfig" for info.
These programs will modify values in the following files:


  • /etc/sysconfig/network - Defines your network and some of its characteristics.
  • /etc/HOSTNAME - Shows the host name of this host. IF your name
    is "myhost" then that is exactly the text this file will contain.
  • /etc/resolv.conf - Specifies the domain to be searched for
    host names to connect to, the nameserver address, and the search order
    for the nameservers.
  • /etc/host.conf - Specifies the order nameservice looks to resolve names.
  • /etc/hosts - Shows addresses and names of local hosts.
  • /etc/networks - Provides a database of network names with
    network addresses similar to the /etc/hosts file. This file is not
    required for operation.
  • /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth* - There is a file
    for each network interface. This file contains the IP address of the
    interface and many other setup variables.


Analysis Tools



  • netstat - Displays information about the systems network
    connections, including port connections, routing tables, and more. The
    command "netstar -r" will display the routing table.
  • traceroute - This command can be used to determine the
    network route from your computer to some other computer on your network
    or the internet. To use it you can type "route IPaddress" of the
    computer you want to see the route to.
  • nslookup - Used to query DNS servers for information about hosts.
  • arp - This program lets the user read or modify their arp cache.
  • tcpdump - This program allows the user to see TCP traffic on their network.
  • dig(1) - Send domain name query packets to name servers for debugging or testing.


Manual Configuration


You can use one of the above tools or configure the network the old fashioned way as follows:


  1. First to use networking on any permanent basis you should setup the
    file /etc/sysconfig/network similar to the example shown below.
  2. Assign an ip address with "ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.100 netmask 255.255.255.0 up".
  3. Tell your machine that a hub is ready for information with the command "route add -net 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 eth0"
  4. To contact hosts outside your network if a machine with IP
    address 192.168.1.1 is the gateway use the command "route add default
    gw 192.168.1.1 eth0"
  5. If using a dialup connection use the command "route add
    default ppp0" The word default says if the packet is not for a machine
    on your local network, send it to the default device.

These settings are not permanent, but go away the next time you boot.
They are normally set up in the directory
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts. Add the network interface to the file
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth*. For example the file
ifcfg-eth0 if for the first ethernet interface, ifcfg-eth1 for the
second, ifcfg-lo is for the local interface. An example file from my
system is:

DEVICE="eth0"
IPADDR="192.168.1.100"
NETMASK="255.255.0.0"
ONBOOT="yes"
BOOTPROTO="none"
IPXNETNUM_802_2=""
IPXPRIMARY_802_2="no"
IPXACTIVE_802_2="no"
IPXNETNUM_802_3=""
IPXPRIMARY_802_3="no"
IPXACTIVE_802_3="no"
IPXNETNUM_ETHERII=""
IPXPRIMARY_ETHERII="no"
IPXACTIVE_ETHERII="no"
IPXNETNUM_SNAP=""
IPXPRIMARY_SNAP="no"
IPXACTIVE_SNAP="no"

Unless you know what you're doing it is best to use a network
configuration tool. I cannot guarantee the accurateness of how to set
these files up on your system.

Configuring an interface for multiple IP addresses


If you want to configure your network card to act as more than one IP address, issue the following command:



ifconfig dummy 192.168.1.102 netmask 255.255.255.0

This uses the dummy system interface capability supported in the
kernel to setup another virtual interface which operates at IP address
192.168.1.102. Substitute the IP address that you want your virtual
interface to be with an appropriate netmask for your network. To
disable this, issue the following command.



ifconfig dummy down

Another way to use multiple IP addresses on one ethernet card is to
set up a new file in your /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory.
Copy your ifcfg-eth0 role to ifcfg-eth0:0. Edit that file and rename
the device to "eth0:0" and the IP address to the desired IP address.
You may also want to modify BROADCAST, NETWORK, or NETMASK. You can
continue adding IP addresses by using :1, :2, etc such as ifcfg-eth0:2.

To make it effective, you must reboot your system or issue the command "/etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart" as root.

Dynamically allocated IP addresses


To get the IP address of a dynamically allocated network interface in a script file enter the following:



dynip=`/sbin/ifconfig | grep -A 4 ppp0 | awk '/inet/ { print $2 } ' | sed -e s/addr://`

Substitute the correct interface that you get your dynamic IP address
in for ppp0 in the example above. This script line gets your dynamic IP
address for use in a masquerade script. You can use the variable $dynip
as in any other configuration. The next time you make a new connection
you will need to extract the dynip value again and re-run the
masquerade script.

Networking file formats, examples and considerations


Below are listed some more in depth information about the networking files.


  • /etc/sysconfig/network
    The /etc/inittab file contains the entry
    "si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit" which causes the system at startup
    to run the rc.sysinit script. The rc.sysinit file expects to find the
    file /etc/sysconfig/network if networking is to be enabled.
    The network file looks like this:


    NETWORKING=yes
    FORWARD_IPV4=false
    HOSTNAME=mymachine.mycompany.com
    DOMAINNAME=mycompany.com
    GATEWAY=192.168.1.1
    GATEWAYDEV=eth0

    Where GATEWAYDEV is the network interface card that is attached to the
    network the gateway machine is on. The GATEWAY is the actual IP address
    of the gateway machine.
  • /etc/hosts - Defines local hosts.
    127.0.0.1 localhost localhost.localdomain
    192.168.1.100 mymachine.mycompany.com mymachine
  • /etc/services - Internet network services list. It associates
    port numbers with names of services. The file contains three fields
    which are name, port/protocol, and aliases with an optional comment.
  • /etc/protocols - Describes DARPA internet protocols available
    from the TCP/IP subsystem. Maps protocol ID numbers to protocol names.
    It includes protocol name, number, and aliases. The protocol file on my
    system:
    # /etc/protocols:
    # $Id: protocols,v 1.1 1995/02/24 01:09:41 imurdock Exp $
    #
    # Internet (IP) protocols
    #
    # from: @(#)protocols 5.1 (Berkeley) 4/17/89
    #
    # Updated for NetBSD based on RFC 1340, Assigned Numbers (July 1992).

    ip 0 IP # internet protocol, pseudo protocol number
    icmp 1 ICMP # internet control message protocol
    igmp 2 IGMP # Internet Group Management
    ggp 3 GGP # gateway-gateway protocol
    ipencap 4 IP-ENCAP # IP encapsulated in IP (officially ``IP'')
    st 5 ST # ST datagram mode
    tcp 6 TCP # transmission control protocol
    egp 8 EGP # exterior gateway protocol
    pup 12 PUP # PARC universal packet protocol
    udp 17 UDP # user datagram protocol
    hmp 20 HMP # host monitoring protocol
    xns-idp 22 XNS-IDP # Xerox NS IDP
    rdp 27 RDP # "reliable datagram" protocol
    iso-tp4 29 ISO-TP4 # ISO Transport Protocol class 4
    xtp 36 XTP # Xpress Tranfer Protocol
    ddp 37 DDP # Datagram Delivery Protocol
    idpr-cmtp 39 IDPR-CMTP # IDPR Control Message Transport
    rspf 73 RSPF #Radio Shortest Path First.
    vmtp 81 VMTP # Versatile Message Transport
    ospf 89 OSPFIGP # Open Shortest Path First IGP
    ipip 94 IPIP # Yet Another IP encapsulation
    encap 98 ENCAP # Yet Another IP encapsulation
  • /etc/named.conf - Used for domain name service to configure
    named. Other files used are dependent on this file. This file is
    explained further in the DNS section
  • /etc/resolv.conf - Specifies the domain to be searched for
    host names to connect to, the nameserver address, and the search order
    for the nameservers.
    domain mycompany.com
    search mycompany.com mynet.net
    nameserver 192.168.1.100
    nameserver 192.168.199.1
    nameserver 192.168.1.10

    The third line specifies that DNS should be tried on my machine
    first then use the normal nameserver on the fifth line. The fourth line
    specifies that my machine is running nameservices on another network
    which is using interface 192.168.199.1. This assumes the nameserver is
    set up on my machine which is explained in another section.
  • /etc/host.conf - Specifies the order nameservice looks to resolve names. An example file:
    order hosts, bind
    multi on
    nospoof on

    The order specifies that when resolving names to first look in the
    /etc/host file, then use BIND8 (DNS) to resolve the name. The line
    "multi on" specifies that all valid addresses for a host found in the
    hosts file should be returned.

The files in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts control your network
interfaces. The network interface file is described above in the
section "Manual Configuration". If you want or need more in depth
knowledge about how these files are used, you will need to read the
document "How Linux Works CTDP Guide" or "The CTDP Linux Startup
Manual". Otherwise you will need to analyze the system startup scripts
which is no small task.

Older X windows configuration


In Xwindows a working configuration is set up as follows:

NAMES:
hostname: mymachine.mycompany.com
Domain: mycompany.com
Nameservers: 192.168.1.10
HOSTS:
IP - 192.168.1.100
Name - mymachine.mycompany.com
INTERFACES:
Interface - eth0
IP- 192.168.1.100
proto - none
atboot - yes
Netmask: 255.255.255.0
Network: 192.168.1.0
Broadcast: 192.168.1.255
ROUTING:
Default gateway: 192.168.1.1
Default gateway device: eth0
Interface - 192.168.1.100
Network Address - 192.168.1.0
Network gateway 192.168.1.1
Netmask - 255.255.255.0



Routing


Routing table information is used to route incoming and outgoing
network diagrams to other machines. On most simple configurations,
there are three routes. One for sending packets to your own machine,
one for sending packets to other machines on your network and one for
sending packets to other machines outside your network through the
gateway. Two programs (ifconfig and route) are used to configure these
parameters. They are described in more detail in the routing section.
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