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 Difference between 45nm Core 2 (Duo / Quad) and 65nm Core 2 (Duo / Quad)

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PostSubject: Difference between 45nm Core 2 (Duo / Quad) and 65nm Core 2 (Duo / Quad)   Thu Oct 02, 2008 11:37 am

New PC buyers would be facing one major
questions, though its quite confirm that it would be a Core 2 (Duo /
Quad) processor but now there is 2 versions of it. The 65nm Conroe
batch and 45nm Penryn batch.

Many would be thinking whats the difference between these 45nm Core 2 Duo / Quad vs 65nm Core 2 Duo / Quad processors ?

I would be trying to list few basic
difference between these processors from an end user point a view. The
immediate difference one may find is their identifying model numbers.

  • nm stands for nano meter.
  • Code name of Intel processors comes from the a name of any local
    neighborhood near by to the Intel development facility in which it is
    developed


Intel 65nm processors are the 1st batch of Core architecture product code named Conroe / Conroe XE / Conroe L / Allendale / Merom / Merom XE / Kentsfield / Kentsfield XE.
Intel 45nm Penryn
processors are the second batch of the successful Core architecture
with Code name Penryn / Wolfdale / Yorkfield / Yorkfield XE.
Every single Intel processor model has their unique identification
numbers, the 65nm numbers are as follows with relationship of their
code name.

The 65nm Core 2 batch is as follows, it contains Dual Core desktop and notebook as well as Quad core desktop processors.

Intel Core 2 Duo (Conroe - 65nm)

E6300 - 2MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 1.86 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6320 - 4MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 1.86 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6400 - 2MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.13 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6420 - 4MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.13 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6540 - 2MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.33 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6550 - 4MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 2.33 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6600 - 4MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.40 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6700 - 4MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.67 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6750 - 4MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 2.67 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E6850 - 4MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 3.00 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
Intel Core 2 eXtreme (Conroe XE - 65nm)

X6800 - 4MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.93 GHz / 75W / Desptop (LGA 775)
Intel Core 2 Duo (Allendale - 65nm)
E4300 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 1.80 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E4400 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.00 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E4500 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.20 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E4600 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.40 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
E4700 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.60 GHz / 65W / Desptop (LGA 775)
Intel Core 2 Duo (Merom - 65nm)
T5200 - 2MB L2 / 533 FSB / 1.60 GHz / 34W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5250 - 2MB L2 / 667 FSB / 1.50 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5270 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 1.40 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5300 - 2MB L2 / 533 FSB / 1.73 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5450 - 2MB L2 / 667 FSB / 1.66 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5470 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 1.60 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5500 - 2MB L2 / 667 FSB / 1.66 GHz / 34W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5550 - 2MB L2 / 667 FSB / 1.83 GHz / 34W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5600 - 2MB L2 / 667 FSB / 1.83 GHz / 34W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5750 - 2MB L2 / 667 FSB / 2.00 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T5850 - 2MB L2 / 667 FSB / 2.16 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7100 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 1.80 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7200 - 4MB L2 / 667 FSB / 2.00 GHz / 34W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7250 - 2MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.00 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7300 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.00 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7400 - 4MB L2 / 667 FSB / 2.16 GHz / 34W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7500 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.20 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7600 - 4MB L2 / 667 FSB / 2.33 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7700 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.40 GHz / 34W / Mobile (Socket P)
T7800 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.60 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
L7200 - 4MB L2 / 667 FSB / 1.33 GHz / 17W / Mobile (Socket P)
L7300 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 1.40 GHz / 17W / Mobile (Socket P)
L7400 - 4MB L2 / 667 FSB / 1.50 GHz / 17W / Mobile (Socket P)
L7500 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 1.60 GHz / 17W / Mobile (Socket P)
L7700 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 1.80 GHz / 17W / Mobile (Socket P)
U7500 - 2MB L2 / 533 FSB / 1.06 GHz / 10W / Mobile (Socket P)
U7600 - 2MB L2 / 533 FSB / 1.20 GHz / 10W / Mobile (Socket P)
U7700 - 2MB L2 / 533 FSB / 1.33 GHz / 10W / Mobile (Socket P)
Intel Core 2 eXtreme (Merom XE - 65nm)
X7800 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.60 GHz / 44W / Mobile (Socket P)
X7900 - 4MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.80 GHz / 44W / Mobile (Socket P)
Intel Core 2 Quad (Kentsfield - 65nm)
Q6600 - 8MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.40 GHz / 95W / Desktop (LGA 775)
Q6700 - 8MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.67 GHz / 95W / Desktop (LGA 775)
Intel Core 2 Quad (Kentsfield XE - 65nm)
QX6700 - 8MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.67 GHz / 130W / Desktop (LGA 775)
QX6800 - 8MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.93 GHz / 130W / Desktop (LGA 775)
QX6850 - 8MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 3.00 GHz / 130W / Desktop (LGA 775)
The 45nm Penryn batch is as follows,
Intel Core 2 Duo (Penryn - 45nm)
T9300 - 6MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.50 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T9500 - 6MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.60 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T8100 - 3MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.10 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
T8300 - 3MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.40 GHz / 35W / Mobile (Socket P)
Intel Core 2 eXtreme (Penryn XE - 45nm)
X9000 - 6MB L2 / 800 FSB / 2.80 GHz / 44W / Mobile (Socket P)
X9100 - 6MB L2 / 800 FSB / 3.00 GHz / 44W / Mobile (Socket P)
Intel Core 2 Duo (Wolfdale - 45nm)
E7200 - 3MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.53 GHz / 65W / Desktop (LGA 775)
E7300 - 3MB L2 / 1066 FSB / 2.67 GHz / 65W / Desktop (LGA 775)
E8190 - 6MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 2.67 GHz / 65W / Desktop (LGA 775)
E8200 - 6MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 2.67 GHz / 65W / Desktop (LGA 775)
E8300 - 6MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 2.83 GHz / 65W / Desktop (LGA 775)
E8400 - 6MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 3.00 GHz / 65W / Desktop (LGA 775)
E8500 - 6MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 3.16 GHz / 65W / Desktop (LGA 775)
Intel Core 2 Quad (Yorkfield - 45nm)
Q9300 - 06MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 2.50 GHz / 95W / Desktop (LGA 775)
Q9450 - 12MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 2.67 GHz / 95W / Desktop (LGA 775)
Q9550 - 12MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 2.83 GHz / 95W / Desktop (LGA 775)
Intel Core 2 eXtreme (Yorkfield XE - 45nm)
QX9650 - 12MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 3.00 GHz / 130W / Desktop (LGA 775)
QX9770 - 12MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 3.20 GHz / 136W / Desktop (LGA 775)
QX9775 - 12MB L2 / 1333 FSB / 3.20 GHz / 150W / Desktop (LGA 775)

As you may see, from the model numbers,
basically the E6xxx / E4xxx / T5xxx / T7xxx / Q6xxx / QX6xxx processors
are coming under 65nm platform, where as the E7xxx / E8xxx / Q9xxx /
T8xxx / Q9xxx / QX9xxx processors belongs to Penryn 45nm family.

So when you would be looking to
purchase a notebook or a desktop processor, this number would quickly
help you to under stand the type of the processor it is coming with.

Difference in their manufacturing !

All though all these processors are
under Core 2 family however there is a major jump from 65nm to this
45nm platform which Intel has done.

Basic building block of modern
processors, silicon is no longer present in this 45nm family. 65nm
infact is the smallest that a silicon gate can archive. Intel has
developed a new material calling it High-K gate.

High-K gate allows Intel to make smaller transistors. A quick Intel video on Why High-K switch ?

What are transistors ?

In short layman’s language, this is some thing which is building block of any processor. It calculate and processes data. - Read more in Wiki. More is better, so number of transistors under your processor will determine how fast it is.

Number of transistors

45nm Core 2 processors contains 410 million transistors per core compare to 291 million per core of a 65nm Core 2 processor. Few quick facts on 45nm

Difference in clock speed and power consumptions

Increased number of transistors and
lower power consumptions allows the new 45nm processors to run at
higher clock speed compare to 65nm counter part under same price range
!!

More L2 cache

Once again smaller transistors size
with High-K gate at 45nm allowed more space under processor Die, thus
allowed Intel to increase the L2 cache.

Compare to 4 MB L2 E6xxx the standard
Penryn dual core comes with 6 MB L2 where as compare to 8 MB of 65nm
Quads, a 45nm quad core comes with 12 MB of cache.

Enhanced cache line split load

Not only more L2 option for 45nm processors, also they get smarter. Penryn comes with a new function called “enhanced cache line split load“.
This innovation allows the processors to read L2 data more efficiently.
Namely, the set of data which are suppose to be on a single thread but
for some reason, is distributed on multiple thread. This new function
would help to realign the data on a single thread and unblocking other
threads which would allow other sets of data to be processed
simultaneously. Data base related applications and some CAD
applications would heavily benefit from it.

Fractional multiple

The Penryn family supports fractional multiple, thus allowing users to archive better over clocking needs.

Multiple ??

(FSB / 4) x multiple = Clock Speed

Good for over clocking

The new Penryn 45nm family is certainly
better over clockers compare to their 65nm counter part. New High-K
gate technology along with fractional multiple allows the lowest range
45nm processors (E8xxx) to touch almost 4 GHz with simple air cooling
options.

Fast Radix-16 Divider support

This is a new feature compare to
Radix-4 under a 65 nm Core 2 processor which is now included under
Penryn batch. Just in layman’s language, this allows Penryn to process
certain data such as integer and floating-point division and square
roots twice faster than older 65 nm batch. Virtual / CAD application
would have some major benefit from it.

Built For Virtualization

The 45nm batch is built for
virtualization. This range of processors with Intel VT technology and
larger L2 cache is meant to provide full support for application
platform like Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V / VM Ware hardware
virtualization or upcoming Windows 7 with native virtualization support.

SSE4.1 instructions support

Once again a major jump by supporting
47 new instruction set over older SSSE3 instruction sets. This is a
major jump for Hardware technology how ever right now there are very
very few application which are able to use few of these new 47
instruction set, for example few video encoding softwares would run
significantly faster with Penryn compare to older Core 2 range. However
not just video encoding, as we move along many upcoming softwares would
be optimized for 45nm platform and would have ability to use these new
instruction sets.

What does this mean to a layman computer user ?

To be honest, if you have a 65nm
(Conroe) Core 2 range processor then under present real world
application there would be a 6 to 15 % improvement with the new 45nm
Penryn batch with heavy processing application, but with day to day
application, there will be no visible performance improvement.

Simply to put it in this way, at
present we dont have any mainstream real world application which can
take advantage of a Penryn.

So if you are thing to upgrade your
65nm Core 2 (duo / quad) range processor with a new 45nm, then I would
suggest to hold. It would be better idea to wait till the Intel 32nm
nehalem range for a processor upgrade. Where as if you have money to
spend, it would better idea to buy a better and powerful graphics card
(if you are a gamer) or some more RAM (for virtualisation) or a better
and larger TFT (for entertainment).

Where as if you are a new computer user
and planing to buy one PC / Notebook, then as intel has released these
45nm with same price tag of 65nm, you must make sure your new PC /
notebook comes with 45nm processor if you plan to buy a Intel based PC.
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